Search results for: amino-acids-as-chemical-transmitters

Amino Acids as Chemical Transmitters

Author : Frade Fonnum
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This volume represents the proceedings of a NATO Advanced Study Institute on Amino Acids as Chemical Transmitters, which took ~lace at Spatind Hotel in Norway, August 14-21, 1977. The meeting is related to two previous meetings on metabolic compart mentation in the brain. The first of these meetings took place at Rockefeller Foundation, Bellagio, Italy, July 11-16, 1971 and the proceedings, Metabolic Compartmentation in Brain, were edited by R. Balazs and J. E. Cremer and published by Macmillan in 1973. The second meeting was an Advanced Study Institute on Metabolic Com partmentation and Neurotransmission Relation to Brain Structure and Function, which was held in Oxford, September 1-8, 1974. The proceedings were edited by S. Berl, D. D. Clarke and D. Schneider and published as Volume 6 of the NATO ASI Life Science series by Plenum Press. The object of the present meeting was to review and discuss the present status of amino acids as chemical transmitters. Several issues such as electrophysiological response, localization, synthe sis, release and receptor binding of transmitter candidates were discussed. The possible morphological correlates to these func tions were also reviewed. During the meeting 24 leading papers were given. In addition, several of the participants presented important new findings during the discussion. Some of these have been included as short reports. The main financial support was obtained from NATO, Scientific Affairs Division.

Neurotransmitter Receptors

Author : S. J. Enna
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Amino Acids as Chemical Transmitters

Author : Frade Fonnum
File Size : 58.44 MB
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This volume represents the proceedings of a NATO Advanced Study Institute on Amino Acids as Chemical Transmitters, which took ~lace at Spatind Hotel in Norway, August 14-21, 1977. The meeting is related to two previous meetings on metabolic compart mentation in the brain. The first of these meetings took place at Rockefeller Foundation, Bellagio, Italy, July 11-16, 1971 and the proceedings, Metabolic Compartmentation in Brain, were edited by R. Balazs and J. E. Cremer and published by Macmillan in 1973. The second meeting was an Advanced Study Institute on Metabolic Com partmentation and Neurotransmission Relation to Brain Structure and Function, which was held in Oxford, September 1-8, 1974. The proceedings were edited by S. Berl, D. D. Clarke and D. Schneider and published as Volume 6 of the NATO ASI Life Science series by Plenum Press. The object of the present meeting was to review and discuss the present status of amino acids as chemical transmitters. Several issues such as electrophysiological response, localization, synthe sis, release and receptor binding of transmitter candidates were discussed. The possible morphological correlates to these func tions were also reviewed. During the meeting 24 leading papers were given. In addition, several of the participants presented important new findings during the discussion. Some of these have been included as short reports. The main financial support was obtained from NATO, Scientific Affairs Division.

Neurotransmitter Receptors

Author : Sam J. Enna
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Since the discovery that neuronal transmission can be chemically mediated, a large number of compounds have been found in the mammalian central nervous system which appear to function as neurotransmitter agents. Recently, electrophysiological and biochemical methods have been developed which have enabled neuroscientists to classify better the myriad of neurotransmitter receptor sites in brain and to study their properties in finer detail. As a result of these investigations, a significant number of new discoveries have been made about the mechanisms involved in neurotransmitter receptor interactions, the role neurotransmitters play in the actions of pharmacological agents and in the pathogenesis of various neuropsychiatric disorders. The present two volume text was compiled to summarize the information relating to the physiological, biochemical, pharmacological and functional characteristics of neurotransmitter receptor sites. While emphasis is placed on neurotransmitter receptors in the mammalian central nervous system, the characteristics of these receptors in other species, both vertebrate and invertebrate, are also discussed where appropriate. While these books cover the major classes of putative neurotransmitters - amino acids, peptides and biogenic amines - and are therefore broad in scope, each is discussed in a concise fashion to highlight the major points of historical and contemporary interest. In addition to outlining data, each chapter addresses current theories relating to the various aspects of receptor properties and function in an attempt to reveal the directions of future research and as a stimulus for other workers in the field.

The Chemical Languages of the Nervous System

Author : Josef Donnerer
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Neurochemical transmission accounts for the majority of information transfer both in the central and peripheral nervous system. The initial findings centred around the experimental work of the two Nobel Prize winners Sir Henry H. Dale and Otto Loewi as well as Wilhelm Feldberg. Their historical findings opened the door to further investigations and extended the list of neurotransmitters to many others such as amino acids, peptides, purines and nitric oxide. In the first part, the publication provides fascinating insights into the life of the three scientists. Their personality and scientific approach are presented through autobiographical sketches and personal memories by authors. Various comments and details of the atmosphere in the laboratory complete the picture of the conditions at the time. The second part is dedicated to the history of the substances, such as neurotransmitters, their antagonists and analogues. The stories of these substances are presented to the reader in a succinct way, including many anecdotes and unusual events on the way to their therapeutic application. Contents Preface Introduction Otto Loewi Otto Loewi Introductory Remarks Autobiographic Sketch. By O. Loewi Otto Loewi 1873-1961. By H.H. Dale Otto Loewi. By F. Brucke Loewi's Time in Graz Comment on Loewi's Dream An Overlooked Parallel to Kekule's Dream: The Discovery of the Chemical Transmission of Nerve Impulses by Otto Loewi. By U. Weiss and R.A. Brown The Loewi Family's Way to the New World Comment on the Film Nobelpreistrager Otto Loewi Henry Hallett Dale Henry Hallett Dale Introductory Remarks Henry Hallett Dale 1875-1968. By W. Feldberg Fifty Years after the Nobel Prize Award to H.H. Dale and Otto Loewi. By G.B. Koelle Religious Reflections of Dale and Loewi Wilhelm Feldberg Wilhelm Feldberg Introductory Remarks The Early History of Synaptic and Neuromuscular Transmission by Acetylcholine: Reminiscences of an Eye Witness. By W. Feldberg From the History of Scientists to that of Neurotransmitters A Substance Isolated from Brain, Synthesized and Called Neurin: Acetylcholine Adrenaline, Noradrenaline and Dopamine: The Catecholamines Enteramine and Serotonin: Two Names and Three Functions of 5-Hydroxytryptamine Histamine: One Substance and Three Functions The Amino Acid Transmitter Family A Cloud of Peptides Substance P Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide Neuropeptide, Galanine and Vasoactive Intephinal Polypeptide Opioid Peptides Nitric Oxide ATP and Adenosine Peripheral Neurogenic Stimulators Neurotransmission in the Central Nervous System From Transmitter to Receptor: Progress within 50 Years.

Central Neurotransmitter Turnover

Author : C. J. Pycock
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The concept of chemical transmission in the central nervous system has taken some time to be generally accepted, but an increasing number of compounds are now being recognized as hav ing a transmitter role in the brain. The acetylcholine system was the first to be discovered in the periphery and its charac teristic features of storage of transmitter in vesicles in the nerve terminal, its electrically-evoked release and rapid extra neuronal breakdown were considered to be necessary criteria for any neurotransmitter candidate. The subsequent elucidation of the noradrenergic system made it apparent that rapid enzymatic breakdown was not essential for a released transmitter, and the possibility of high-affinity re-uptake processes became establ ished as an alternative means of terminating the synaptic actions of a transmitter. With the eventual acceptance of the amino acids as excitat ory or inhibitory transmitters, the requirement for a transmit ter to be present in a low concentration overall (although locally concentrated in specific terminals) also had to be discarded. This necessitated the additional concept of specif ic metabolic pools with different functions being located in different cells or within different regions of the same cell. Some localization of glutamate and aspartate remote from excit able membranes is clearly essential since their overall brain concentrations would be sufficient to maximally depolarize the majority of neurones in the brain. The concept of separate metabolic pools has been supported by stUdies on turnover rate (see Chapter 5).

Neurotransmitter Actions in the Vertebrate Nervous System

Author : Michael Rogawski
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Intercellular communication via bioactive substances occurs in virtually all multicellular systems. Chemical neurotransmission in the vertebrate nervous system represents a form of signaling of this type. The biology of chemical neurotransmission is complex, involving transmitter synthesis, transport, and release by the presynaptic neuron; signal generation in the target tissue; and mechanisms for termination of the response. The focus of this book is on one aspect of this scheme: the diverse electrophysiological effects induced by different neurotransmitters on targets cells. In recent years, astonishing progress has been made in elucidating the specific physiological signals mediated by neurotransmitters in the verte brate nervous system, yet, in our view, this has not been adequately recog nized, perhaps because the new concepts have yet to filter into neuroscience textbooks. Nevertheless, the principles of neurotransmitter action are critical to advances in many areas of neuroscience, including molecular neurobiol ogy, neurochemistry, neuropharmacology, physiological psychology, and clinical neuroscience. It was the need for a sourcebook that prompted us to engage a group of neurophysiologists to prepare the chapters in this volume. However, there was an additional reason for this book: more and more it seemed that the field, if not yet having reached maturity, at least was ap proaching adolescence, with strengths in some areas and healthy conflicts in others. At this stage of development a textbook can help to define a field, clarify problems to be resolved, and identify areas for future investigation.

Excitatory Amino AcidsTheir Role in Neuroendocrine Function

Author : Darrell W. Brann
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This publication focuses on the neuroendocrine functions of excitatory neurotransmitters in the brain known as the excitatory amino acid transmitters (EAAs). EEAs, such as glutamate and aspartate, regulate the release of pituitary hormones which in-turn effect most of the physiological systems in the body. This book gives detailed coverage of the role of EAAs in reproduction, growth, the stress axis, seasonal breeding, puberty, learning, and memory.

Central Neurotransmitter Turnover

Author : C. J. Pycock
File Size : 81.60 MB
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The concept of chemical transmission in the central nervous system has taken some time to be generally accepted, but an increasing number of compounds are now being recognized as hav ing a transmitter role in the brain. The acetylcholine system was the first to be discovered in the periphery and its charac teristic features of storage of transmitter in vesicles in the nerve terminal, its electrically-evoked release and rapid extra neuronal breakdown were considered to be necessary criteria for any neurotransmitter candidate. The subsequent elucidation of the noradrenergic system made it apparent that rapid enzymatic breakdown was not essential for a released transmitter, and the possibility of high-affinity re-uptake processes became establ ished as an alternative means of terminating the synaptic actions of a transmitter. With the eventual acceptance of the amino acids as excitat ory or inhibitory transmitters, the requirement for a transmit ter to be present in a low concentration overall (although locally concentrated in specific terminals) also had to be discarded. This necessitated the additional concept of specif ic metabolic pools with different functions being located in different cells or within different regions of the same cell. Some localization of glutamate and aspartate remote from excit able membranes is clearly essential since their overall brain concentrations would be sufficient to maximally depolarize the majority of neurones in the brain. The concept of separate metabolic pools has been supported by stUdies on turnover rate (see Chapter 5).

Neurotransmitter Receptors

Author : Sam J. Enna
File Size : 20.8 MB
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Since the discovery that neuronal transmission can be chemically mediated, a large number of compounds have been found in the mammalian central nervous system which appear to function as neurotransmitter agents. Recently, electro physiological and biochemical methods have been developed which have enabled neuroscientists to classify better the myriad of neurotransmitter receptor sites in brain and to study their properties in finer detail. As a result of these investigations, a significant number of new discoveries have been made about the mechanisms involved in neurotransmitter receptor interactions, the role neurotransmitters play in the actions of pharmacological agents and in the pathogenesis of various neuropsychiatric disorders. The present two volume text was compiled to summarize the information relating to the physiological, biochemical, pharmacological and functional characteristics of neurotransmitter receptor sites. While emphasis is placed on neurotransmitter receptors in the mammalian central nervous system, the characteristics of these receptors in other species, both vertebrate and invertebrate, are also discussed where appropriate. While these books cover the major classes of putative neurotransmitters - amino acids, peptides and biogenic amines - and are therefore broad in scope, each is discussed in a concise fashion to highlight the major points of historical and contemporary interest. In addition to outlining data, each chapter addresses current theories relating to the various aspects of receptor properties and function in an attempt to reveal the directions of future research and as a stimulus for other workers in the field.